Survey of London: Towers and Castles

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Of Towers and Castels.
THe Citie of London (saith Fitzstephens) hath in the East a very great & a most strong Palatine Tower,The Tower of1 London. whose turrets and walles do rise from a deep foundation, the mor
ter thereof being tempered with the blood of beastes. In the west parte are two most

Towers and Castels.
strong Castels &c. To beginne therefore with the most famous Tower of London, situate in the East, neere vnto the Riuer of Thames, it hath béene the common opinion: and some hane2 written (but of none assured ground) that Iulius Cesar, the first Conqueror of the Britaines, was the originall Author, and foun
der aswell thereof, as also of many other Towers, castles, and great buildings within this Realme: but (as I haue alreadie be
fore noted) Cesar remayned not here so long, nor had hee in his head any such matter,
In my Annals.
but onely to dispatch a conquest of this bar
barous countrey, and to procéede to greater matters. Neyther do the Romaine writers make mention of any such buildings erected by him here. And therefore leauing this, and procéeding to more grounded authoritie, I find in a fayre register booke, of the actes of the Bishops of Rochester, set downe by Edmond of Haden
, that William the first (surnamed Conquerour) builded the Tower of London, to wit, the great white and square Tower, there, about the yeare of Christ 1078. appointing Gundulph, then Bishop of Rochester, to be principall surueyer and ouersée
er3 of that worke, who was for that time lodged in the house of Edmere a Burgesse of London, the very wordes of which mine Author are these. Gundulphus Episcopus mandato Willielmi Regis magni præfuit operi magnæ Turris London. quo tem
pore hospitatus est apud quendā Edmerum Burgensem Lon
. qui dedit vnum were Ecclesiæ Rofen
This was the great square Tower, which was then builded, and hath béene since, at diuers times inlarged with other buildings adioyning, as shall be shewed hereafter.
VVilliam Malmsebery. Mathew Paris I. London, Castle by the Tower build
This Tower was by tempest of wind sore sha
ken in the yeare 1090. the fourth of William Rufus , and was a
gaine by the said Rufus and Henry the first repayred. They also caused a castle to be builded vnder the said Tower, to wéete, on the South side towardes the Thames.
Othowerus, Acolinillus, Otto, and Geffrey Earle of Essex were foure of the first Constables of this Tower of London, by succession: all which held by force a portion of lande (that pertay
ned to the Priorie of the holie Trinitie within Aldgate) that is to say, East Smithfield,
Eastsmithfield a Vineyarde.
néere vnto the Tower, making there
of a Uyneyarde, and woulde not depart from it, till the seconde

Towers and Castels.
yeare of King Stephen , when the same was adiudged and restored to the said Church.
Ex. Charta.
This Geffrey Magnauille was Earle of Essex, Constable of the Tower, Sheriffe of London,
Geffrey Mag
na Ville
, Earle of Essex, Con
stable of the Tower and Sheriffe of London.
Middlesex Essex, and Hertford shires, as appeareth by a Charter of Maud the Empresse, dated 1141. He also fortified the Tower of Lon
against King Stephen, but the King tooke him in his court at S. Albons, and would not deliuer him till hee had rendred the Tower of London, with the Castels of Walden, and Pleshey in Essex. About the yeare 1190. the second of Richard the first, William Longshampe Bishop of Elie, Chauncellor of England, for cause of dissention betwixt him and Earle Iohn
Iohn Beuer.
the Kings bro
ther, that was rebell, inclosed the Tower,
The Tower of London com
passed about with a wall & a ditch.
and castle of London, with an outward wall of stone imbattailed, and also caused a déepe ditch to be cast about the same, thinking (as I haue said before) to haue enuironed it with the Riuer of Thames. By the making of this ditch in Eastsmithfield, the Church of the holy Trinitie in London lost halfe a marke rent by the yeare, & the Mill was re
moued that belonged to the poore brethren of the Hospitall of S. Katherine,
S. Katherines mill stood where now is the Iron gate of the Tower.
and to the Church of the Trinitie aforesaid, which was no small losse and discommoditie to eyther part, and the gar
den which the King had hyred of the brethren for sixe markes the yeare, for the most part was wasted and marred by the ditch. Re
compence was often promised, but neuer performed, vntill King Edward comming after, gaue to the brethren fiue markes and a half for that part which the ditch had deuoured: and the other part thereof without, he yeelded to them againe, which they hold: and of the said rent of fiue markes and a halfe they haue a déed, by ver
tue whereof, they are well paid vntill this day.
About the yeare 1239. King Henry the third caused the To
wer of London
to be fortified with bulwarkes,
Bulwarke without the Tower build
which after they were builded fell downe, and therefore he caused it to be reedified more strongly, to his cost of more then twelue thousand markes.
In the yeare 1274. King Edward the first commaunded the Treasurer and Chamberlaine of his Exchequer, to deliuer out of his Treasorie, vnto Giles of Andwarp 200.
Record. Tower. Ditch about the Towerres payred.
markes, of the fines, taken of diuers Marchants, or vsurers of London, towardes the worke of the ditch about the Tower of London.

Of Towers and Castels.
Edward the fourth fortified this Tower, and made if strong.
And in the yeare 1532. King Henry the eight repayred the whyte Tower.
Tower repay
red by Henry the eight,
Thus much for the foundation and building, in
crease and maintenance of this Tower. Now somewhat of acci
dents in the same.
In the year 1196.
Actions of the Tower.
William Fitzosbart, a cittizen of London seditiously mouing the common people to séeke libertie, and not to be subiect to the rich, and more mighty, at length was taken and brought before the Archbishoppe of Canterburie in the Tower,
Iustices sate in the Tower of London.
where he was by the iudges condemned, had iudgement, and was by the héeles drawne thence to the Ealmes in Smithfield, and there hanged.
In the yeare 1220. all the Plées belonging to the crowne, were holden in the Tower:
Plees of the Crowne plea
ded in the Tower.
and likewise in the yeare 1224. &c.
In the yeare 1222. the cittizens of London hauing made a tumult against the Abbot of Westminster, Hubert of Burgh, chiefe Iustice of England, came to the Tower of London, called before him the Mayor and Aldermen, of whom he enquired for the principall authors of that sedition: amongst whome one named Constantine Fitz Aelulfe auowed, that hee was the man, and had done much lesse then he ought to haue done: Wherevpon the Iustice sent him with two other to Falks de Brent, who with ar
med men, brought him to the gallowes, and there hanged him & other twaine.
In the yeare 1244. Griffith
Griffith of Wales fel from the Tower.
the eldest sonne of Leoline, prince of Wales, being kept prisoner in the Tower, deuised meanes of es
cape, and hauing in the night made of the hangings, shéetes, &c. a long line, he put himselfe downe from the toppe of the Tower, but in the slyding, the weight of his body, (being a very bigge and a fatte man) brake the rope, and he fell and brake his necke with
In the yeare 1253. King Henry the thirde, imprisoned the Sheriffes of London in the Tower,
Sheriffes of London priso
ners in the Tower.
more then a moneth, for the escape of a prisoner out of Newgate.
In the yeare 1260. King Henry
K. Henry land
ed in the To
wer, and held his Parliament there.
with his Quéene (for seare of the Barons) were lodged in this Tower. The next yeare hee sent for his Lords, and held his parliament there.

Towers and Castels.
In the yeare 1263. when the Quéene would haue remoued from the Tower by water, towards VVindsore, sundry Londo
ners got them together to the bridge, vnder the which she was to passe, and not onely cryed out vpon her with reprochfull wordes, but also threw myre & stones at her, by which she was constrained to returne for the time, but in ye year 1265. the said Citizens were faine to submit themselues to the king for it, and the Mayor, Alder
men, & Sheriffes were sent to diuers prisons, & a Custos also was set ouer the Citie, to wit, Othon Constable of the Tower, &c.
In the yeare 1282. Leoline Prince of VVales
Leoline prince of Wales his head set on the Tower.
being taken at Blewth Castle, Roger Lestrange cut off his head, which Sir Roger Mortimer caused to be crowned with Iuie, and set it vp
on the Tower.
In the yeare 1290. diuers Iustices aswell of the Bench,
Iustices of the Bench sent to the Tower.
as of the assyses, were sent prisoners to the Tower, which with great sommes of money redéemed their libertie.
In the yeare 1320. the Kinges Iustices sate in the To
Iustices sate in the Tower.
for tryall of matters, wherevpon Iohn Gifors late Mayor of London, and many other fled the Citie for feare of things they had presumptuously done.
In the yeare 1321. the Mortimers yéelding themselues to the King, he sent them prisoners to the Tower, where they remayned long, and were adiudged to be drawne and hanged. But at length Roger Mortimer
Mortimer made an e
scape out of the Tower. Citizēs of Lōdon wrested ye keyes of the Tower from the Constable. Mortimer drawne from the Tower to the Elmes, & hanged
of Wigmore by giuing to his kéepers a sléepie drinke, escaped out of the Tower, and his vncle Roger being still kept there died about fiue yeares after.
In the year 1326. the Citizens of London wrested ye keyes of ye Tower out of the Constables hands, & deliuered all the prisoners.
In the yeare 1330. Roger Mortimer Earle of March was taken and bronght4 to the Tower, from whence hee was drawne to the Elmes and there hanged.
In the yeare 1344. King Edward the third commaunded Flo
of gold to be made and coyned in the Tower, that is to say, a penie péece of the value of sixe shillinges and eyght pence, the half penie piece, of the value of iij.>.and iiijď.and a farthing péece worth 20. pence, Perciuall de Porte of Luke being then Maister of the coyne. And this is the first coyning of Gold in the Tower,
A Mint in the Tower: Florēces of gold coi
ned there.

Towers and Castels.
whereof I haue read, & also the first coyning of Gold in England: for (that I may a little digresse by occasion hereof) I find that in times before passed,
Argent, and Pecunia after called Estar
all great sommes were paid by wayght of gold or siluer, as so many pounds or marks of siluer, or so many pounds or markes of Gold, as I could proue by many good authorities, which I ouerpasse. The smaller sommes also were paide in star
lings, which were pence, so called, for other coynes they had none. The antiquitie of this starling penie vsuall in this Realme, is from the raign of Henry the second: notwithstanding, the Saxon coines before the conquest were pence of fine siluer full the weight, and somewhat better then the latter starlings, as I haue tryed by con
ference of the pence of Burghrede king of Mercia, Aelfred, Ed
, and Edelrod, kings of the West Sexons, Plegmond Arch
bishop of Canterburie, and others. William the Conquerours
W. Conqueror Weare no beardes. W. Malmsbery
penie also was fine siluer of the weight of the Easterling, and had on the one side stamped an armed heade, with a beardles face, (for the Normans did weare no beardes) with a scepter in his hand: the inscription in the circumference was this, Le Rei Wilā on the other side a Crosse double to the ring, betwéene foure row
als of sixe pointes.
King Henrie the first his pennie was of the like weight, fine
nes, forme of face, crosse &c.
This Henrie in the eight year of his raigne, ordayned the peny which was round, so to bee quartered, by the crosse, that they might easily bee broken, into halfe pence and farthinges. In the first, second, thirde, fourth, and fift of king Richard the first his raigne, and afterwardes I find commonly Esterling mony menti
oned, and yet oft times the same is called argent as afore, and not otherwise.
The first great summe that I read of to be paid in Esterlinges, was in the fift of Richard the first, when Robert Earle of Ley
being prisoner in France, proffered for his ransome a thou
sand markes Esterlinges, notwithstanding the Esterling pence were long before. The weight of the Esterling pennie
VVeight of starling penie 32. graines of Wheate.
may ap
peare by diuers statutes, namely of weights and measures, made in the 51. of Henry the third in these words. Thirtie two graines of Wheat, drie and round, taken in the midst of the eare, should

Towers and Castels.
be the weight of a starling penie, 20. of those pence shoulde waye one ounce, 12. ownces a pound Troy. It followeth in the statute eight pound to make a gallon of Wine, and eight gallons a bushell of London measure; &c. Notwithstanding which Statute, I find in the eight of Edward the first, Gregorie Rokefley Mayor of London, being chiefe Maister or minister of the kinges Ex
chaunge, or mintes, a new coyne being then appointed, the pound of Esterling money should contayne as afore 12. ownces, to wit, fine siluer, such as was then made into foyle, and was commonly called siluer of Guthurons lane, 11. ounces, two Estarlings, and one ferling or farthing, and the other 17. pence ob. q. to bee lay. Also the pound of money ought to weygh xx..iij.ď.by accompt, so that no pound ought to be ouer xx..iiij.ď.nor lesse thē xx..ij.ď. by accompt, the ounce to weigh twenty pence, the penny weyght, 24. graynes (which 24. by weight then appointed, were as much as the former 32. graynes of weight) a pennie force, 25. graynes and a halfe, the pennie deble, or féeble 22. graines and a halfe &c.
Now for the pennie Esterling how it tooke that name, I think good briefly to touch.
The penie E
sterling how it tooke the name.
It hath béene said that Numa Pompilius the second King of the Romaines commanded money first to bee made, of whose name they were called Numi, and when Copper pence, siluer pence, and gold pence were made, because euery sil
uer pennie was worth ten Copper pence, and euery Gold pennie worth ten siluer pence, the pence therefore were called in Latine Denarij, and oftentimes the pence are named of the matter and stuffe of Gold or siluer. But the money of England was called of the workers and makers thereof: as the Floren of gold is called of the Florentines, that were the workers thereof: and so the Esterling pence tooke their name of the Esterlinges, which did first make this mony in England in the raign of Henry the second.
Thus haue I set downe according to my small reading in anti
quitie: these money matters, omitting the imaginations of late writers, of whom some haue saide Esterling money to take that name of a starre, stamped in the border, or ring of the pennie: o
ther some of a birde called a Stare or starling
Starling mo
ney when it tooke begin
ning in this land.
stamped in the cir
cumference: and other (more vnlikely) of being coyned at Siri

Towers and Castels.
uelin or Starling, a towne in Scotland. &c.
Now concerning halfe pence, and Farthinges,
Of halfepence ond farthings.
the account of which is more subtiller then the pence, I neede not speake of them more, then that they were onely made in the Exchange at Lon
, and no where else. The kinges Exchaunge at London, was neare vnto the Cathedrall Church of S. Paule, and is to this day commonly called the old Chaunge, but in Euidences the old Exchange.
The kings Exchaunger, in this place, was to deliuer out to e
uery other Exchaunger, throughout England, or other the kinges Dominions, their Coyning irons, that is to say, one Standerde, or Staple, and two Trussels, or Punchons: and when the same were spent and woorne, to receiue them with an accounte, what summe had beene coyned, and also their Pix, or Boxe of assay and to deliuer other Irons new grauen, &c.
Mints in Eng
I finde that in the 9. of king Iohn ,
patent 9. Iohn
there was besides the Mint at London, other Mints, at Winchester, Excester, Chicester, Canterbury, Rochester, Ipswitch, Norwitch, Lenn, Lincolne, Yorke, Carlell, North
hampton, Oxforde, S. Edmondsbury
, and Durham. The Ex
changer, Examiner, and Tryer, buyeth the siluer, for Coynage: aunswering for euery 100.£. of siluer, bought in Bolion, or otherwise, 98. l. 15. . for he taketh 25.. for coynage.
Deminishing. of Coine.
In the yeare 1351. William Edington Bishop of Winche
, and Treasurer of Englande, a wise man, but louing the kinges commodity, more then the wealth of the whole Realme, & common people, (saith mine Author) caused a new coine, called a groate, and a halfe groate, to be coyned and stamped,
Thomas VVal
. First groates and halfe coyned.
the groate to be taken for iiij.ď.and the halfe groate for ij.ď.not conteyning in weight according to the pence called Easterlinges, but much lesse, to wit by the pounde: by reason whereof, victuailes, and marchandizes became the dearer, through the whole Realme. Aboute the same time also, the olde coine of golde,
Coines of gold enhaunced.
was changed in
to a new, but the old noble (then so called) was worth much aboue the taxed rate of the new, and therefore the Marchantes iugrossed5 vp the olde, and conueyed them out of the Realme to the greate losse of the kingdome. Wherefore a remedy was prouided by chaunging of the stampe.

Towers and Castels.
In the yeare 1464. king Edwarde the 4. caused a new Coine both of golde
Coines of golde⎜allayed and also raised in valew, Rose, Noble.
and siluer to bee made, whereby he gained much: For he made of an olde Noble a Royal, which he commanded to go for x..Neuerthelesse to the same Royal was put 8. ď. of Alay, and so weighed the more, being smitten, with a new stamp, to wit a Rose. He likewise made halfe Angels of 5.. and Farthings, of 2.. 6.ď. Angelets of 6. . 8.ď. and halfe Angels 3.. 4.ď. He made siluer monies of 3.ď. a groate, and so of other Coynes after that rate, to the greate harme of the commons. William Lorde Ha
being Maister of the kinges Mintes.
Thus much for Mint and coynage in and by occasion of this Tower, where the chiefe coining hath long continued, vnder cor
rection of other more skilful may suffice: and now to other acci
dents here.
In the yeare 1360. the Peace betweene England and France, being confirmed, King Edwarde came ouer into England, and straight to the Tower, to see the French king then prisoner there,
French king Prisoner in the Tower.
whose ransome hee assessed at three millions of Florences, and so deliuered him from Prison, and brought him with honor to the Sea.
In the yere 1381. the Rebels of Kent,
Rebels of Kent enter the Tower.
drew out of the Tow
er (where the king was then loged,) Simon Sudbery, Archbishop of Canterbury, Lorde Chauncelor: Robart Hales Prior of S. Iohns, and Treasurer of Englande: William Appleton Frier, the kinges confessor, and Iohn Legge a Sargiant of the kinges, and beheaded them on the Tower hill. &c.
In the yeare 1387. king Richard
Richard the 2. prisoner in the Tower.
held his feast of Christmas in the Tower. And in the yeare 1399. the same king was sent prisoner to the Tower.
In the yeare 1414. Sir Iohn Oldecastle brake out of the Tower. And the same yeare a Parliament being holden at Lei
, a Porter of the Tower was drawn, hanged and headed, whose heade was sent vp, and set ouer the Tower gate, for con
senting to one Whitlooke, that brake out of the Towre.
In the yeare 1419. Fryer Randulph was sent to the Tow
er, and was there slaine by the Parson of S. Peters in the Tower.
In the yeare 1465. king Henry the 6. was⎜brought priso

Towers and Castels.
ner to the Tower, where he remained long. In the yeare, 1470. the Tower was yeelded to the Maior of London, and his Brethren the Aldermen, who forthwith entered the same, and deliuered king Henry, but the next yeare hee was againe sent thether, and there murthered.
In the yeare, 1478. George Duke of Clarence was drow
ned in the Tower: and within 5. yeares after king Edwarde the 5. with his brother were murdered in the Tower.
King Henry the 6. murdred in the Tower
King Edward the 5. murde
red in the tow
In the yere, 1502. Queene Elizabeth wife of Henry, the 7. died of childebirth in the Tower. In the yeare 1512. the Chappell in the high white Tower was burned. In the yeare 1536. Queene Anne Bullen was beheaded in the Tower. In the yeare 1541. Lady Katheren Howarde wife to king Henry the 8. was also beheaded there.
Thus much for these accidentes: and now to conclude thereof in summarie. This Tower
Vse of the Tower.
is a citadell, to defend or commande the Citie: A royall palace for assemblies, and treaties. A prison of Estate, for the most daungerous offendors: The onely place of coinage for all Englande at this present. The Armorie for war
like prouision. The Treasurie of the ornamentes and Iewels, of the Crowne, and generall conseruer of the most auncient Re
cordes of the kinges Courtes of iustice at Westminster.
The next Tower on the riuer of Thames, is on London bridge at the North ende of the draw bridge.
Tower at the north end of the draw bridg
This Tower was new begun to be builded in the yeare, 1426. Iohn Reynwell Maior of London, laide one of the first corner stones, in the foun
dation of this worke, the other three were laide by the Shiriffes, and Bridgemaisters, vpon euery of these foure stones was engra
uen in fayre Romaine letters, the name of Ihesus. And these stones, I haue seene laide in the Bridge store house, since they were taken vp, when that Tower was of late newly made of timber. This gate and Tower was at the first stronglie builded vp of stone, and so continued vntill the yere 1577. in the Moneth of Aprill , when the same stone Arched gate, and Tower being de
cayed was begunne to bee taken downe, and then were the heads of the Traytors remoued thence, and set on the Tower ouer the gate at the bridge foote, towardes Southwarke. This saide Tow

Towers and Castels.
being taken downe a new foundation was drawne: and Sir Iohn Langley Lord Maior layed the first stone in the presence of the Shiriffes, and Bridge maisters, on the 28. of August , and in the Moneth of September, the yeare 1579. the same Tow
er was finished a beutiful and chargeable peece of worke, all aboue the bridge being of timber.
An other Towre there is on London bridge, to wit, ouer the gate at the South ende of the same bridge
Tower at the south ende of the bridge.
towardes South
. This gate with the Tower thereupon, and two Arches of the Bridge fell downe, and no man perished by the fall thereof in the yere, 1436.
The south gate on London bridge burned
Towards the new building whereof, diuers, cha
ritable Citizens gaue large summes of money: which gate being then again new builded, was in the yere 1471. burned by the Mar
riners and Saylors of Kent, Bastarde Fauconbridge, being theyr Captaine.
In the west part of this citie, (saith Fitzstephen) are two most strong castels &c. Also Garuasius Tilbery, in the raigne of Hen
the second
, writing of these castles, hath to this effect. Two Castles (saith hee, are built with walles and rampires, wher
of one, is in right of succession, Baynardes
: the other the Ba
rons of Mountfitchet: the first of these castles bankying on the riuer Thames, was called Baynardes Castle, of Baynarde, a noble man that came in with the Conqueror, and then builded it and deceased in the yeare of the raigne of William Rufus 6 after whose decease Geffery Baynarde succeeded, and then William Baynarde, in the yeare 1111. who by forfeyture for felony, lost his Barony, of little Dunmow and king Henry gaue if wholy to Robart Fitz Richard the Sonne of Gilbarte Earle of Clare, and to his heires together with the honor of Baynardes castell. This Robart married Maude de Sent Licio, Lady of Bradham and deceased 1134. was buried at S. Nedes, by Richarde Earle of Clare, his Father. VValter, his sonne succeeded him, hee tooke to⎜wife Matilde de Becham, and after her decease Matilde de Lucy, on whome he begat Robarte and other, hee deceased in the yeare 1198. and was buried at Dunmow after whome succeeded Robart Fitzwater a valiant knight.
Aboute the yeare 1213. there arose a greate discorde be
twixt king Iohn, and his Barons, because of Matilde,
Liber Dunmow7.

Towers and Castels.
med the fayre daughter, to the sayde Roberte Fitzwater, whome the king vnlawfully loued, but could not obtayne her, nor her fa
ther woulde consent thereunto, whereupon (and for other like cau
ses) ensued warre throughout the whole Realme. The Barons were receiued into London, where they greatly indamaged the king, but in the end the king did not onely, (therefore) bannish the said Fitzwater
Robert Fitzwa
(amongst other), out of the Realme: but also cau
sed his Castle called Baynarde,
Baynardes castle destroy
and other his houses to be spoiled, which thing being done Matilde, the fayre, a Messenger being sent vnto her,
Virginity de
fended with the losse of worldly goods and life of the bodie, for life of the soule
aboute the kinges suite, whereunto shee would not consent, was poisoned. Robert Fitzwater, and some other being then passed into France, and some other into Scotland. &c.
It happened in the yere 1214. king Iohn being then in France with a greate Armie, that a truce was taken beewixt the two kinges of England and France, for the terme of 5. yeares, and a riuer or arme of the sea being then betwixt eyther Host. There was a knight in the English host, that cried to them of the other side, willing some one of their knightes to come and iust a course or twaine with him, whereupon without stay Robert Fitzwater being on the French parte, made himselfe readie, ferried ouer, and got on horsebacke, without any man to helpe him, and shewed himselfe ready to the face of his challenger, whome at the first course, he stroake so harde with his greate Speare, that horse and man fell to the grounde, and when his speare was broken, hee went backe againe to the king of France, which when the king
King Iohns oath.
had seene, by Gods tooth (quoth hee) after his vsuall oath, hee were a king indeede, that had such a knight: the frendes of Robert hearing these words, kneeled downe and saide: O King hee is your knight: it is Robert Fitzwater,
Robert Fitz
restored to the kings fauour.
and thereupon the next day he was sent for, and restored to the kinges fauour: by which meanes peace was concluded, and he receiued his liuinges, and had licence to repayre his Castle of Baynarde
Baynardes castle againe builded.
and other Castles.
This Robert deceased in the yeare 1234. and was buried at Dunmow, and VValter his sonne that succeeded him 1258. his Barony of Baynarde, was in the warde of king Henry in the nonage of Robert Fitzwater. This Robert tooke to his second wife Alienor, daughter to the Earle of Ferrars, in the

Towers and Castels.
yeare, 1289. And in the yeare 1303. before Iohn Blund Maior of London, hee acknowledged his seruice to the same Citie for his Castle Baynarde, hee deceased in the yere 1305. and leauing issue Walter FitzRobert, who had issue Robert Fitzwater
Richarde Fitz
water Castili
an of London, and banner bearer.
who deceased in the yere 1325. vnto whom succeeded Robert Fitz Ro
bert Fitzwater
, &c. More of the Lord Fitzwaters may ye read in my summary and Annales in the 51. of Edward the 3.. But now how this honor of Baynardes Castle with the appurtenances fell from the possession of the Lords Fitzwaters, I haue not read, onely I finde that Humphrey Duke of Glocester, builded it of new, by whose death in the yeare of Christ, 1446. it came to the hands of king Henry the sixt, and from him to Richarde Duke of Yorke, of whome we reade, that in the yeare 1457 hee lodged there, as in his own house: and true it is, that his sonne king Ed
the fourth being dead, and leauing his eldest sonne Edward and his second sonne Richarde, both infantes: there Richarde Duke of Glocester, then Protector, practised for the Crowne, and as it were by election of the Commons, made in the Guild hall of London, tooke vpon him there the title of the Realme, as offered and imposed vpon him: as yee may reade set downe and penned, by Sir Thomas Moore. King Henry the 7. aboute the yeare 1501. the 3. of his raigne,8 repayred or rather new builded this house not so imbattelled, or so strongly fortified castlelike, but far more beutifull and commodious, for the entertainment of any Prince or greate estate. In the 7. of his raigne hee with his Queene were lodged there, and came from thence to Paules, where they made their offering: dined in the Bishops Palace, and so returned.
King Henry the first 9 was lodged in Bay
nardes Castle
The eighttenth of his raigne hee was lodged there and the Ambassadors from the king of Romaines were thi
ther bronght10 to his presence, and from thence the King came to Pawles and was ther sworne vnto the king of Romaines, as the king had sworne vnto him. This Castle now belongeth to the Earle of Pembrooke. The next Tower, or Castle bankyng also on the Riuer of Thames, was, as is afore shewed, called Mountfiquites Castle, of a noble man, Baron of Mountfitchet the first builder thereof who came in with VVilliam the Con
and was surnamed Le Sir Mountfiquit. This Castle hee

Towers and Castels.
builded in a place not far distant from Baynardes, towardes the West. The same William Mountfiquit liued in the Raigne of Henry the 1. and was witnes to a Charter, then granted to the citie for the Shiriffes of London. Richard Montfiquit liued in king Iohns time: and in the yere 1213. was by the same king ba
nished the Realme into France, when peraduenture king Iohn caused his Castle of Montfiquit, amongst other Castles of the Barons to bee ouerthrowne: the which after his returne, might be by him againe reedified, for the totall destruction thereof was aboute the yeare 1276. when Robert Kiliwarble, Arch
bishop of Canterbury beganne the foundation of the house of the Friars Preachers church there, commonly called the Black Friers as appeareth by a Charter, the 10. of Iune, the 4, of Edwarde the 1. remayning of Recorde in the Tower, wherein is declared that Gregory de Rocksley Maior of London, and the Barons
Barons of London.
of the same Citie granted, and gaue vnto the saide Archbishoppe Robert two lanes or waies next the streete of Baynardes castle and the Tower of Montfiquit, to be applied for the enlargement of the saide Church and place.
A third Tower there was also situate on the riuer of Thames
Tower in the Thames.
neare vnto the saide Blacke Friers Church, on the west parte thereof, builded at the Citizens charges, but by licence and com
mandement of Edwarde the 1. and of Edwarde the 2. as appea
reth by their grantes: which Tower was then finished and so stoode for the space of 300. yeares, and was at the last taken downe by the commandement of Iohn Sha Maior of London in the yeare 1502.
An other Tower or Castle
Tower or Castle on the west⎮of Lon
by S. Brides Church.
also was there in the west parte of the Citie, perteyning to the king: For I reade that in the yere 1087. the 20. of VVilliam the first 11, the Citie of London with the Church of S. Paule. being burned, Mauritius then Bishop of London afterwarde began the foundation of a new Church, whereunto king VVilliam (saith mine Author) gaue the choice stones of this Castle standing neare to the banke of the riuer of Thames, at the west ende of the Citie. After this Mauritius, Ri
his successor, purchased the streetes aboue Paules church compassing the same with a wall of stone, and gates.
V12 ita Arkenwald
King Hen

Towers and Castels.
ry the first gaue to this Richarde so much of the Moate (or wall) of the Castle, on the Thames side to the south, as shoulde be néed
full to make the said wall of the Churchyarde, and so much more as should suffice to make a way without the wal on the North side &c. This Tower (or Castle) thus destroyed stoode as it may seeme, in place where now standeth the house called Bridewel. For not
withstanding the destruction of the saide Castle or Tower, the house remayned large, so that the kings of this Realme long after were lodged there, and kept their Courtes: for in the 9. yeare of Henry the thirde the Courte of law and iustice, were kept in the kinges house,
The kinges house by S. Brides in Eleetestreete.
wheresoeuer he was lodged, and not else where. And that the kings haue beene lodged and kept their Law courtes in this place, I could shew you many authorities of Recorde, but for plaine proofe this one may suffice. Hæc est finalis concordia, faƈta in Curia Domini regis apud Sanƈt. Brigid. London a die Sanƈti Michelis in 15. dies, Anno regni regis Iohannis 7. co
rā G. Fil. Petri. Eustacio de Faucōberg, Iohanne de Gestlinge Osbart filio Heruey, VValter, de Crisping, Iusticiar. & aliis Baronibus Domini regis
. More (as Mathew Paris
Mathew Paris manuscripta13. Parliament at S. Brides.
hath) about the yeare 1210. king Iohn in the 12. of his raigne summoned a Parliament at S. Brides in London, where hee exacted of the Clergie and religious persons the summe of 100000. poundes, & besides all this, the white Monkes were compelled to cancell their Priuiledges, and to pay 40000. poundes to the king, &c. This house of S. Brides of latter time being left, and not vsed by the kinges: fell to ruine, insomuch that the verie platforme thereof remayned for greate parte wast, and as it were, but a laystall of filth and rubbish: onely a fayre well remained there: a greate part whereof, namely on the west, (as hath beene said) was giuen to the Bishop of Salisbnry 14, the other parte towardes the East re
mayning wast, vntill that king Henry the 8. builded a stately and beutifull house thereupon, giuing it to name Bridewell,
Bridewell builded by Henry the 8.
of the parish and well there: this house he purposely builded for the en
tertainement of the Emperor Charles the 5. who in the yeare, 1522. came into this Citie, as I haue shewed in my summary annales, and large chronicles.
On the northwest side of this Citie, neare vnto Redcrosse

Towers and Castels.
streete there was a Tower commonlie called Barbican, or Burh
, for that the same being placed on a high ground, and also builded of some good height, was in the olde time vsed as a Watch Tower, for the Citie, from whence a man might behold and view the whole Citie towards the South, as also sée into Kent, Sussex, and Surrey, and likewise euery other way east, north, or west.
Some other Burhkennings or (Watch Towers) there were of olde time in and aboute the citie, all which were repayred, yea and others new builded, by Gilbart de Clare earle of Glocester, in the raigne of king Henry, the third, when the Barons were in Armes, and held the citie against the ki15ng: but the Barons being reconciled to his fauour in the yeare 1267. hee caused all their Burhkenninges, watch towers, and Bulwarkes made and re
pared by the said Earle, to be plucked downe, and the ditches to be filled vp:so that nought of them might be séene to remaine: and then was this Burhkenning amongst the rest ouerthrowne and destroyed: and although the ditch neare thereunto, called Hounds ditch was stopped vp, yet the streete of long time after was called Houndes ditch, and of late time more commonly called Barbican. The plot or seate of this Burhkenning or watch tower, king Ed
the thirde
in the yeare 1336. and the 10. of his raigne
, gaue vnto Robert Efforde Earle of Suffolke, by the name of his Mannor of Base courte, in the parish of S. Giles without Cripple gate of London, commonly called the Barbican.
Tower Royall was of old time the kinges house, but sithence called the Queenes Wardrobe: the Princesse, mother to King Richard the 2. in the 4. of his raigne was lodged there being for
ced to flie from the tower of London, when the Rebels possessed it: But on the 15. of Iune (saith Frosarde) VVat Tylar being slaine, the king went to this Lady Princesse his mother, then lod
ged in the Tower Royall, called the Queenes Wardrobe, where she had tarried 2. dayes and 2. nightes: which Tower (sayeth the Recorde of Edwarde the 3. the 36. yeare) was in the Parish of S. Michaell de Pater noster, &c.
Liber S. in en
. The king of Ermony came into England.
In the yeare 1386. king Richarde with Queene Anne his wife, kept their Christmas at Eltham, whether came to him Lion king of Ermony vnder pretence to reforme Peace, betwixt thekinges of Englande and

Of Schooles and houses of Learning.
France, but what his comming profited he onely vnderstoode: for besides innumerable giftes, that he receiued of the king, and of the Nobles, the king lying then in this Royall at the Queenes War
Richarde the 2. lodged in the Tower Royall.
in London, granted to him a Charter of a thousand pounds by yeare, during his life. Hee was (as hee affirmed) chased out of his kingdome by the Tartarians. The rest concerning this Tower shall you reade when you come to the Vintry warde in which it standeth.


  1. Scan cut off; context obvious. (SM)
  2. I.e. haue (SM)
  3. I.e. ouerseer
  4. I.e. brought (SM)
  5. I.e. ingrossed (SM)
  6. In the 1598 text, Stow does not specify a year. In the 1603 text, Stow removes the phrase the year of. (KL)
  7. Unclear. (SM)
  8. Stow’s two dating methods do not correspond here; 1501 is the 16th/17th year of Henry VII’s reign. Given the context, it is likely that the 3rd year of Henry VII’s reign (1487-1488) is the correct date. (SM)
  9. I.e. King Henry the seventh (SM)
  10. I.e. brought (SM)
  11. Stow’s two dating methods do not correspond here; 1087 was in the 21st and final year of William I’s reign. (SM)
  12. Unclear. (SM)
  13. Unclear; context obvious. (SM)
  14. I.e. Salisbury (SM)
  15. Letter missing; context obvious. (SM)


Cite this page

MLA citation

Stow, John, and William fitz Stephen. Survey of London: Towers and Castles. The Map of Early Modern London, edited by Janelle Jenstad, U of Victoria, 20 Jun. 2018,

Chicago citation

Stow, John, and William fitz Stephen. Survey of London: Towers and Castles. The Map of Early Modern London. Ed. Janelle Jenstad. Victoria: University of Victoria. Accessed June 20, 2018.

APA citation

Stow, J., & fitz Stephen, W. 2018. Survey of London: Towers and Castles. In J. Jenstad (Ed), The Map of Early Modern London. Victoria: University of Victoria. Retrieved from

RIS file (for RefMan, EndNote etc.)

Provider: University of Victoria
Database: The Map of Early Modern London
Content: text/plain; charset="utf-8"

A1  - Stow, John
A1  - fitz Stephen, William
ED  - Jenstad, Janelle
T1  - Survey of London: Towers and Castles
T2  - The Map of Early Modern London
PY  - 2018
DA  - 2018/06/20
CY  - Victoria
PB  - University of Victoria
LA  - English
UR  -
UR  -
ER  - 


RT Web Page
SR Electronic(1)
A1 Stow, John
A1 fitz Stephen, William
A6 Jenstad, Janelle
T1 Survey of London: Towers and Castles
T2 The Map of Early Modern London
WP 2018
FD 2018/06/20
RD 2018/06/20
PP Victoria
PB University of Victoria
LA English
OL English

TEI citation

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