Survey of London: Gates

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Gates in the wall of this Citie.
Gates of Lon
4 north, south, east and west.
in the wall of this Citie of olde time were 4 to wit, Aldgate for the east, Al
for the North, Ludgate for the West, and the Bridgegate ouer the ri
uer of Thames, for the South, but of la
ter times for the ease of the Citizens and Passengers, diuers other gates and Po
haue beene made as shalbe shewed. In the raigne of Henry the second (saith Fitzstephen) there were seuen double gates in the wall of this Citie, but he nameth them not. It may be supposed he ment for the first, the gate next to the Tower of London, which then serued as a Posterne for Passengers out of the East: from thence through Towerstreete, Eastcheape, and Candleweekestrete, to Londonstone, the midle point of that high way: then through Budgerow, watheling
, and leauing Paules Church on the right hand, to Lud
in the west, the next be Aldgate, Bishopsgate, Criplegate, Aldersgate, Ludgate, and the Bridgegate, ouer the Thames. Since the which time hath been builded Newgate, the Posterne called Moregate, a Posterne from Christeshospital, towardes S. Bartelmewes Hospitall in Smithfielde &c. Of euery of these gates and Posterns as also of certeine watergates seueral
ly somewhat may bée noted, as I finde authority to warrant mee.
The first was the Posterne gate next vnto the Tower of Lon
Posterne by the Tower of London.
which at the length fell downe in the yeare 1440. the 18. of Henry the 6. and was neuer reedified againe of stone, but an homely cotage with a narrow passage made of timber, lath, and loame: hath beene in place thereof set vp, and so remaineth. The ruine of the saide Posterne began in the yeare 1190. the second of Richarde the first, william Longshampe Bishop of Ely and Chauncelor of England, caused a part of the city wal, to wit, from the saide gate towardes the riuer of Thames to bee broken down for the enlarging of the Tower, which Tower he compassed far

Gates of this Citie.
wide aboute with a wal, and is now the vtter wal of the Tower, he also caused a broade and deepe ditch to bee made without the same wal, intending to haue deriued the riuer of Thames, to haue flowed aboute it. By meanes of this ditch the foundation of that gate being loosed and greately weakened, fell at the length, as yée haue hearde and so remaineth.
The next in the East in Aldgate of olde time so called of the an
tiquitie or age thereof. It appeareth by a Charter of king Ed
to the Knightes of Kinghtone Guilde, that in his dayes the said Porte was called Aldgate. Also Matilde the Queene, wife to Henry the first, in the eight yere of his raigne, hauing foun
ded the Priorie of the Holy Trinitie within Aldegate, gaue vnto the same church, to Norman the first Prior, and the Canons that deuoutlie serued God therein, the Porte of Aldegate, & the Soke or
Soke or Court
Franchise thereunto belonging with al customs, as free as shee held the same, &c. In the which Charter, shee nameth the house Christes church, and reporteth Aldegate to bée of her demaine. The next towards the north, is called Bishopsgate, for that, as it may be supposed, the same was first builded by some Bishoppe of London, the certaynty whereof is vnknown, but true it is that this gate was first builded for the ease of the passengers towards the East and by North, as into Norfolke, Suffolke, Cambridge
, &c. The Trauellers into which parts before the building of this gate were forced, passing out at Aldegate, to goe east till they came to the Miles end, & then to turne on the left hand to Ble
thenhal green
now called Bednal greene, to Cambridge heath, and so North, or East and by North, as their Iourney lay. If they tooke not this way, by the East out at Aldgate, they must take their way by the North out at Aldersgate through Alders
gate streete
, and Goswelstreete towards Iseldon, and by a crosse of stone on their right hand, set vp for a marke by the North ende of Golding lane to turne Eastwarde through a long streete vntill this day called Aldestreete, to an other crosse standing, where now standeth a Smithes Forge by Sewers ditch church, and then to turne againe North towardes Totenham, Endfield, Waltham, Ware, &c. The eldest note that I reade of this Bishopsgate, is that wiliam Blund one of the Sheriffes of London in the yeare,
Liber trinitati.

Gates of this Citie.
1210. solde to Serle Mercer, and VVilliam Almaine, procu
rators, or Wardens, of London bridge, all his land with the garden, in the Parish of S. Buttolph without Bishopsgate, betweene the land of Richard Casiarin towards the north, and the lande of Robert Crispie towardes the South, and the high way called Bearewardes lane
Bishopsgate streete with
out, of old time called Bearewardes lane.
on the East &c. Next I reade in a Charter
dated the yere 1235. that Walter Brune Citizen of London, and Rosia his wife founded the Priorie or new Hospital of our blessed Lady, since called S. Mary Spittle, without Bishops
, for Canons regular the 19. of Henry the thirde. Also in the yeare 1247. Simon Fitzmarie, one of the Sherifes of London, the 29. of H. the thirde, founded the Hospitall of S. Marie,
called Bethlem without Bishopsgate. Thus much for Antiquitie, now for repayring of this gate. I find, that Henry the thirde graun
ted or confirmed to the Marchantes of the Haunce,
Liber cu
stome, London.
that had an house in the citie called Guildhalla Theutonicorum, certaine Liberties and Priuiledges. Edwarde the first also confirmed the same. In the 10. yeare of whose raigne, it was founde that the saide Marchantes ought of right to repayre the saide gate cal
led Bishopsgate. Whereupon Gerarde Marbod, Alderman of the Haunce and other, then remayning in the Citie of London: for themselues, and al others Marchants of the saide hance, granted, 210. markes sterling to the Maior and Citizens. And couenanted that they and their successors should from time to time repayre the same gate.
Bishopsgate repared by the Marchants of the Haunce Bishopsgate was builded.
This gate was againe beutifully builded in the yere 1479. in the raigne of Edwarde the 4. by the saide Haunce Marchantes: Moreo1uer aboute the yeare 1551. these Haunce Marchantes hauing prepared stone for that purpose, caused a new gate to be framed, there to haue beene set vp, but then their. Li
berties through suite of our English Marchantes, were seazed in
to the Kings hand, and so that worke was stayed, and the olde gate yet remaineth.
Touching the next Posterne, called Moregate,
Bishopsgate, prouided to haue beene new builded Posterne, called Moore
I finde that Thomas Faulconer Maior, aboute the yeare one thousande foure hundred and fifeteene, the third of Henry the fifte, caused the wall of the Citie to bee broken neare vnto Colemanstreete

Gates of this Citie.
and there builded a Posterne, now called Moregate, vppon the Moore side where was neuer gate before. This gate he made for ease of the Citizens, that way to passe vppon causewaies into the fielde, for their recreation: For the same fielde was at that time a Marrish. This Posterne was reedified by Wil
liam Hampton
Fishmonger Maior, in the yeare 1472. In the yeare also, 1511. the thirde of Henry the eight. Roger A
Maior, caused Dikes and Bridges to bee made, and the ground to bee leuiled, and made more commodious for passage since which time the same hath beene heighthened. So much that the Ditches and Bridges are couered, and if it bee made le
uill with the Battlementes of the Citie wall: yet will it bee lit
tle the drier, such is the Moorish nature of the grounde. The next is the Posterne of Cripplegate
posterne of Criplegate. Abba Florien
sis. Burcharde.
so called long before the Conquest. For I reade in the Historie of Edmonde King of the East Angles, written by Abba Floriacensis, & by Burchard sometime Secretarie to Offa king of Marcia. That in the yeare 1010. The Danes spoiling the kingdom of the East Angles, Alwyne Bishop of Helmeham, caused the bodie of king Edmonde the Martir to bee brought from Bedrisworth, (now called Bury S. Edmondes) through the kingdome of the East Saxons, and so to London in at Cripplegate, a place (saith mine Author) so called of Criples begging there: at which gate, (it was saide) the bodie entering, miracles were wrought, as some of the Lame did goe vpright, praising God. The bodie of King Edmond rested for the space of three yeares in the Parrish church of Saint Gregorie, neare vnto the Cathe
drall Church of Saint Paule
. Moreouer the Charter of William the Conqueror, confirming the foundation of the Colledge in London called S. Martin the greate, hath these wordes. I doe geue and graunt to the same Church and Cannons, seruing God therein. All the lande and the Moore without the Posterne, which is called Cripplegate, on eyther parte of the Posterne.
Liber S Bar
Besides this Alfune builded the parrish church of S. Giles nigh a gate of the citie called Porta contractorum , or Criplesgate about the yeare 1090.

Gates of this Citie.
This Posterne was sometime a prison, wherevnto such Citti
zens and others, as were arrested for debt,
Criplesgate a prison for trespassors.
or common trespasses were committed, as they be now to the Compters, which thing appeareth by a writte of Edward the first in these wordes: Rex vic. London, salutem: ex graui querela B. capt. & detent. in prisona nostra de Criples gate pro x.£,
quas colam Radul
pho de Sandwico tunc custod, Ciuitatis nostræ London, & I. de Blackwell ciuis recognit. debit. &c
. This gate was new builded by the Brewers of London in the yeare 1244. as saith Fabians Manscript.
Criplesgate new builded.
Edmond Shaw Goldsmith, Mayor, in the yeare 1483. at his decease appoynted by his testament his executors, with the cost of 400. Markes, and the stuffe of the olde gate, called Criples gate, to builde the same gate of new, which was performed and done, in the yeare 1491. The next is Aldresgate or Aldersgate,
so called not of Aldrich, or of Elders, that is to say, auncient men, builders thereof,
Beware the Cat.
nor of Eldarne trées growing there more aboun
dantly, then in other places, as some haue fabuled, but for the very antiquitie of the gate it selfe, as being one of the first foure gates of the cittie, and seruing for the Northerne partes, as Aldegate did for the East, which two gates being both old gates, are for dif
ference sake called, the one Aldegate, and the other Aldergate. This gate hath at sundry times béene increased with buildinges, namely, on the south or innerside, a great frame of timber hath béene added and set vp, contayning diuers large roomes, and lodge
inges: also on the East side, is the addition of one great building of timber, with one large floore paued with stone, or tile, and a Well therein curbed with stone, of a great depth, and rysing into the said roome, which is two stories high from the ground: which Well is the onely peculiar note belonging to that gate, for I haue not séene the like in all this Cittie, to be raysed so high. Iohn Day Stationer, a late famous printer of many good bookes, in our time dwelled in this gate, and builded much vpon the wall of the cittie towards the parish Church of Saint Anne. Then is there also a Posterne gate made out of the wall on the North side of the late dissolued cloyster of Friers minors, commonly of their habite cal
led Gray Friers, now Christes Church, and Hospitall.
A Postern out of Christes Hospitall,
This Po

Gates of this Citie.
sterne was made in the sixt yeare of Edward the sixt, to passe from the said Hospitall of Christes Church, vnto the Hospitall of Saint Bartlemew in Smithfield.
The next gate on the west, and by North, is termed Newgate, as latelier builded then the rest. This gate was first erected about the raigne of Henry the second, or Richard the first, vpon this occasion. The Cathedrall Church of Saint Paule, being burnt about the yeare 1086. in the raigne of VVilliam the Conque
, Mauritius then Bishoppe of London, rapayred not the olde church, as some haue supposed, but began the foundation of a new worke, such as men then iudged would neuer haue béene perfor
med, it was to them so wonderfull for height, length, and breadth, as also in respect it was raysed vppon arches or vaults, &c. After Mauritius, Richard Beamore did wonderfully aduance the work of the said Church, purchasing the large stréetes, and lanes round about, wherein were wont to dwell many lay people, which grounds he began to compasse about with a strong wall of stone, and gates. By meanes of this increase of the Church territo
rie, but more by inclosing of grounde, for so large a cemitorie, or church yarde: the high and large stréete stretching from Aldegate in the East, vntill Ludgate in the West, was in this place so crossed and stopped vp, that the carriage through the cittie West
warde, was forced to passe without the saide churchyarde wall on the North side, through Pater noster row: and then south down Aue Mary lane, and againe West through Bowiar row to Lud
: or else out of Chepe, or Wathelingstreet to turne South through the old Exchaunge, then West through Carter lane: a
gaine North vp Créede lane, and then West to Ludgate. Which passage, by reason of so often turning, was very combersome, and daungerous both for horse and man.
Newgate first builded, and the cause why.
For remedie whereof, a new gate was made, and so called, by which men and cattell with all manner of carriages, might passe more directly (as afore) from Aldegate, through West Cheape by Paules on the North side, through Saint Nicholas Shambles, and Newgate market to Newgate, and from thence to any part Westwarde ouer Old
, or turning without the gate into Smithfielde, and through Iseldon to any part North and by West. This gate

Gates of this Citie.
hath of long time béene a Gayle,
Close role. Newgate a i2ayle or pri
son house. The king re
payred it.
or prison, for fellons and trespas
sors, as appeareth by records in the raigne of King Iohn , of which amongst other I find one testifying that in the yeare 1218. The third of King Henry the thirde, the King writeth vnto the She
riffes of London, commaunding them to repaire the Gaile of Newgate, for the safe keeping of his prisoners, and that the char
ges which they should lay out, should be allowed vnto them vpon their accompt in the Exchequer. Moreouer in the yeare 1241. the Iewes of Norwich were hanged for circumcising a Christian childe, their house called the Thor, was pulled downe and destroi
ed, Aron the sonne of Abraham a Iew, at London, and the other Iewes were constrained to pay twentie thousand markes at two termes in the year, or els to be kept perpetuall prisoners in New
of London and in other prisons. 1255. King Henry the thirde lodging in the Tower of London, vppon displeasure con
ceyued towards the Cittie of London, for the escape of Iohn Of
a prisoner being a Clearke conuict, out of Newgate, which had killed a Prior that was of alliance to the King, as cosen to the Queene, he sent for the Mayor and Sheriffes to come before him, to aunswere the matter: the Mayor laid the fault from him to the Sheriffes,
The Shiriffes of London prisoners in the Tower for escape of a prisoner out of Newgate.
forsomuch as to them belonged the keeping of all pri
soners within the cittie, and so the Mayor returned home, but the Sheriffes remayned there prisoners, by the space of one Moneth and more, and yet they excused themselues in that the fault chiefly rested in the Bishops Officers: for whereas the prisoner was vn
der custodie, they at his request had graunted licence to imprison the offendor within the Gaile of Newgate, but so as the Bishops Officers were charged to sée him safely kept. The King not
withstanding all this, demanded of the cittie 3000. markes for a fine. In the yeare 1326. Robert Baldoke, the kinges Chan
cellor was put in Newgate.
The kinges Chauncellor prisoner in New gate.
In the yeare 1337. S. Iohn Poult
gaue foure markes by the yeare, to the reliefe of prisoners in Newgate. In the yeare 1385. William Wallwoorth gaue som
what to relieue the prisoners in Newgate so haue manie others since also. In the yeare 1414. the Gaylors of Newgate and Lud
dyed, and prisoners in Newgate to the number of 64. In the 1418. The Parson of Wrotham in Kent was imprisoned in
Gates of this Citie.
Newgate. The yeare 1422. the first of Henry the sixt, licence was granted to Iohn Couentre, Ianken Carpenter, and Wil
liam Greue
Newgate new builded.
executors to Richard Whittington, to reedifie the Gaile of Newgate, which they did with his goodes. Lastly Tho
mas Knowles
Mayor, by licence of Reynold Prior of S. Bartle
, in Smithfield, and also of Iohn Wakering Mayster of the Hospitall of S. Bartlemewe, and his brethren, conueyed the waste of water at the cesterne néere to the common fountaine and Chappell of S. Nicholas, (situate by the saide Hospitall) to the Gailes of Newgate, and Ludgate, for reliefe of the prisoners, and this may suffice for Newgate.
Ludgate in the West is the next, and is called Ludgate as first builded (saith Geffrey Monmouth) by King Lud a Briton, about the yeare before Christes natiuitie 66 Of which building, and also of the name, as Ludsgate, or Fluds gate, hath béene of late some question amongst the learned, wherefore I ouer passe it, as not to my purpose, onely referring the reader to that I haue before written, out of Cesars commentaries, and other Romaine writers concerning a towne or Cittie amongst the Britaines. This gate I suppose to be one of the most auncient: and as Ald
was builded for the East, so was this Luds gate for the west. I reade as I tolde you that in the yeare 1215. The 17. of King Iohn the Barons of the Realme, being in armes against the King entred this Citie, and spoyled the Iewes houses, to fill their owne purses which being done, Robert Fitzwater, and Geffrey de Magna villa Earle of Essex, and the Earle of Gloucester chiefe leaders of the Army, applyed all diligence to repayre the gates and walles of this Citie, with the stones of the Iewes broken houses, especially (as it séemeth) they then repayred or rather new builded Ludgate.
Ludgate new builded.
For in the yeare 1586. when the same gate was ta
ken down to be newe builded, there was found couched within the wall thereof, a stone taken from one of the Iewes houses, where
in was ingrauen in Hebrewe Caracters these wordes following, הך מצב הר משה בן הרב ר יצחק
Iewes houses spoiled.
Hæc est statio Rabbi Moses, fillj3 insignis Rabbi Isaac : which is to say, this is the Sta
tion, or Ward of Rabby Moses, the sonne of the honorable Rab
by Isaac
, and had béene fixed vppon the front of one of the Iewes

Gates of this Citie.
houses as a note, or signe that such a one dwelled there. In the yeare 1260. this Ludgate was repaired and beautified with ima
ges of Lud and other Kinges, as appeareth by letters pattents
in the Tower, of licence giuen to the cittizens of London, to take vp stone for the making of those images, dated the 45. of Henry the third. These images of Kinges in the raigne of Edward the sixt had their heads smitten off, and were otherwise defaced, by vnad
uised folkes, and in the raigne of Quéene Marie were repayred, as by setting new heads on their old bodies, &c. All which so remay
ned vntil the year 1586.
Ludgate again new builded.
The 28. of Quéen Elizabeth , when the same gate being sore decayed was clean taken down, the prisoners in the meane time remayning in the large Southeast quadrant to the same Gate adioyning, and the same yeare, the whole gate was newly and beautifully builded with the images of Lud, & others, as afore, on the East side, and the picture of her Maiestie,
Ludgate in
larged in the raigne of H. the sixt. 4
Quéene Eilzabeth on the West side.
Al which was done at the common charges of ye cittizens, amoū
ting to 1500. £. or more.
Ludgate a free prison.
This gate was made a frée prison in the yeare 1378. the first of Richard the second
Record Guild. hall.
, Nicholas Brem
being Mayor. The same was confirmed in the yeare 1382. Iohn Northampton being Mayor, by a common counsaile in the Guild hall: by which it was ordayned that all frée men of this Cittie should for debt, trespasses, accomptes, and contempts, bee imprisoned in Ludgate, and for treasons, fellonies, and other cri
minall offences be committed to Newgate. &c. In the yeare 1439 the tenth of King Henry the sixt5, Iohn Welles being Mayor, & court of common counsaile established ordinanances, (as William Standon & Robert Chicheley, late Maiors before had done) tou
ching the garde and gouernment of Ludgate, and other prisons.
Also in the yeare 1463. the third of Edward the fourth, Ma
thew Philip
being Mayor, in a common counsaile, at the request of the well disposed, blessed, and deuout woman, Dame Agnes For
, widow, late wife to Stephen Forster Fishemonger, some
time Mayor, for the comfort and reliefe of all the poore prisoners, certaine Articles were established. Inprimis, that the new works then late edified by the same Dame Agnes, for the inlarging of the prison of Ludgate, from thenceforth should be had and taken,

Gates of this Citie.
as a parte and parcell of the saide prison of Ludgate, so that both the olde and new worke of Ludgate aforesaid, be one prison, gaile, kéeping, and charge for euermore.
The saide Quadrant strongly builded of stone, by the before named Stephen Forster, and Agnes his wife, contayneth a large walking place by grounde, the like roome it hath ouer it for lodg
ings, and ouer all a fayre leades to walke vpon, well imbattayled, all for ease of prisoners, to the end they shoulde haue lodging and water frée without charge: as by certaine verses grauen in Cop
per, & fixed on the said Quadrant, I haue read in forme following.
Old verses on Ludgate.
Deuout soules that passe this way,
for Stephen Forster late Mayor, hartely pray,
And Dame Agnes his spouse, to God consecrate,
that of pitty this house made for Lōdoners in Ludgate.
So that for lodging and water prisoners here nought pay,
as their keepers shal answere at dreadfull domes day.
This plate, and one other of his Armes, taken downe with the old gate, I caused to be fixed ouer the entrie of the said Quadrant, but the verses being vnhappily turned inward to the wall, the like in effect is grauen outwarde in prose, declaring him to bee a Fish
monger, because some vpon a light occasion (as a maydens heade in a glasse window) had fabuled him to bee a Mercer, and to haue begged there at Ludgate, &c. Thus much for Ludgate.
Next this, is there a breach in the wal of the Citie,
A breach in the wal against Bridewell.
and a bridge of timber ouer the Fleet dike, betwixt Fléet-bridge and Thames, directly ouer against the house of Bridewel.
Of the water gates of name, on the banke of the riuer of Thames. The first from the West towardes the East, is called Ripa Reginæ, the Quéens bank, or Quéene Hith,
Watergates Queenes hith
which may wel be accounted a water gate, & the very chief of this citie, being a com
mon strand or landing place, yet equal with, & of old time as far ex
celling Belins gate, as shalbe shewed in the ward of Quéene Hith.
The next is Downe gate, so called (as may be supposed) of the sodaine descending, or downe going of that way from S. Iohns Church vpon Walbrooke vnto the Riuer of Thames, whereby the water in the channell there hath such aswift course, that in the

Gates of this Citie.
yeare 1574. on the fourth of September after a strong shower of rayne, a lad (of the age of 18. yeares)
A lad of 18. yeares old. drowned in a channell at downegate.
minding to haue leapt ouer the channell, was taken by the féete and borne downe with the vi
olence of that narrow streame, and carryed towarde the Thames with such a violent swiftnesse, as no man could rescue or stay him, till he came against a cart whéele, that stood in the water gate, be
fore which time he was drowned, and starke dead.
This was sometime a large water gate, frequented of shippes and other vessels, like as the Quéene Hith, and was a part there
of, as doth appeare by an Inquisition made in the 28. yeare of Henry the third, wherein was founde, that aswell corne as fish and all other things comming to the Port of Downe gate, were to bee ordered after the customes of the Quéenes Hith, for the kings vse, as also that the corne arriuing betwéene the gate of the Guildhall of the Marchants of Cullen: the (Styleyarde) which is East from Downe gate, and the house then pertayning to the Archbishoppe of Canterbury, West from Baynards castle, was to be measured by the measure and measurer of the Quéenes soke, or Quéene Hith.
Marchants of the Haunce, landed their corne betwixt their house, & the Black friers
I reade also in the 19. of Edward the thirde, that customes were then to be payde for shippes and other vessels resting at Downe gate, as if they roade at Quéene Hith, and as they now doe a Belingsgate. And thus much for Downe gate may suffice.
The next after Downgate (of old time) was called Wolses gate
Wolses gate in the Roperie. Liber Horn Liber S, Albon
in the reperie in the parish of Alhallowes the lesse, of later time called Wolses lane, but now out of vse: for the lower parte was builded on by the Earle of Shrewsburie, and the other part was stopped vp, and builded on by the Chamberlaine of London.
The next is Ebgate,
Ebgate Liber trinitate, Liber S, Albon Record E. the 3.
a Watergate, so called of old time, as ap
peareth by diuers records of tenements néere vnto the same adioy
ning. It standeth neare vnto the Church of S. Laurence Pount
, but is within the parish of S. Marten Ordegare. In place of this gate is now a narrow passage to the Thames, and is called Ebgate lane, but more commonly the Old Swanne.
Then is there a water gate at the Bridge foote, called Oyster gate,
of Oysters that were there of old time commonly to be sold, and was the chiefest market for them, and for other shell fishes

Gates of this Citie.
There standeth now an engine, or forcier, for the winding vp of ter 6 to serue the citie, whereof I haue already spoken.
The next is the Bridge gate,
Bridge gate.
so called of London Bridge whereon it standeth: This is one of the foure first and principall gates of the citie, and was long before the conquest, when there stood a Bridge of timber: which Gate being weakely made, when the bridge was builded of stone, hath béene often times since repay
red. This gate with the Tower vpon it, in the 1436. fell down, & two of the farthest Arches Southwards also fell therewith, and no man perished or was hurt therewith. To the repayring where
of, diuers welthy cittizens gaue large summes of money, namely Robert Large, sometime Mayor, gaue to that work 100. marks, Stephen Forster 20. l. S. Iohn Crosby Alderman 100. l. &c. But in the yeare 1471.
W. Dunthorne
the Kentish Mariners vnder the conduct of Bastard Fauconbridge, burned the said Gate, and xiij.honses 7 on the Bridge, besides the Béere houses at S. Katherines, and many other in the suburbes.
The next is Buttolphes gate,
Buttolphes gate.
so called of the parish Church of S. Buttolph néere adioyning. This gate was sometime giuen, or confirmed by William Conqueror, to the Monkes of West
in these wordes: W. Rex Angliæ &c. William King of England, sendeth gréeting to the Sheriffes & all his ministers, as also to all his louing subiects, French and English of London, Know ye that I haue granted to God, and S. Peter of Westmin
, & to the Abbot Vitalis, the gift which Almundus of the port of S. Buttolph gaue them, when he was there made Monke: that is to say, his Lords court with the houses, and one Wharfe, which is at the head of London bridge, and all other his landes which he had in the same citie, in such sort as King Edward more benefici
ally, and amply granted the same: and I will and command, that they shall inioy the same well and quietly and honourably with
sake, and soke &c.
The next is Belingsgate nowe vsed as an especiall Porte or harborow, for small shippes and boates comming thereto, and is now the largest water gate on the Riuer of Thames, and there
fore most frequented, the Quéenes Hith being almost forsaken. Now this Gate tooke that name, or of what antiquity the same is,

Towers and Castels.
must leaue vncertaine, as not hauing read any auncient recorde thereof, more then that Geffrey Monmouth writeth, that Belin a King of the Britans, about 400. yeares before Christes nati
builded this gate, and named it Belins gate, after his owne calling: and that when he was dead, his bodie being burned, the ashes in a vessell of brasse, were set vpon a high pinacle of stone o
uer the same Gate. But Cesar, and other the Romaine writers, affirme of citties, walles, and gates, as ye haue before heard, and therefore it séemeth to me not to be so auncient, but rather to haue taken that name of some later owner of the place, happily named Belin, as Somars Key, Smarts Key, Froth wharfe, and others thereby tooke their names of their owners: of this gate more shall be saide when we come to Belins Gate warde.
Then haue you a Water gate on the West side of Woolle wharfe, or Customers Key, which is now of late most beautifully enlarged and built, This gate is commonly called the Water
, as being at the South end of Water lane.
One other Water gate there is by the Bulwark of the Tow
Watergate by the Tower.
and this is the last and farthest water gate Eastward, on the Riuer of Thames, so farre as the cittie of London extendeth with
in the walles: both which last named water gates bee within the Tower ward.
Besides these common Water gates were diuers priuate wharfes and Keyes
Wharfes and Keyes.
all along from the East to the West of this Cittie, on the banke of the Riuer of Thames: Marchants of all nations had landing places, Ware houses, sellers and stowage of their goodes and marchandises, as partly shall bee touched in the Wardes adioyning to the said Riuer, and therefore concerning Gates let this suffice.


  1. Unclear. (SM)
  2. Underinking. (SM)
  3. Underinking. (SM)
  4. When referring to Henry VI’s reign, Stow ignores his brief reinstatement as king from Sep.-Oct. 1470 to April 1471. (SM)
  5. Stow’s two dating methods do not correspond here. 1439 is in the 17/18th years of Henry VI’s reign. (SM)
  6. I.e. water (SM)
  7. I.e. houses (SM)


Cite this page

MLA citation

Stow, John, and William fitz Stephen. Survey of London: Gates. The Map of Early Modern London, edited by Janelle Jenstad, U of Victoria, 20 Jun. 2018,

Chicago citation

Stow, John, and William fitz Stephen. Survey of London: Gates. The Map of Early Modern London. Ed. Janelle Jenstad. Victoria: University of Victoria. Accessed June 20, 2018.

APA citation

Stow, J., & fitz Stephen, W. 2018. Survey of London: Gates. In J. Jenstad (Ed), The Map of Early Modern London. Victoria: University of Victoria. Retrieved from

RIS file (for RefMan, EndNote etc.)

Provider: University of Victoria
Database: The Map of Early Modern London
Content: text/plain; charset="utf-8"

A1  - Stow, John
A1  - fitz Stephen, William
ED  - Jenstad, Janelle
T1  - Survey of London: Gates
T2  - The Map of Early Modern London
PY  - 2018
DA  - 2018/06/20
CY  - Victoria
PB  - University of Victoria
LA  - English
UR  -
UR  -
ER  - 


RT Web Page
SR Electronic(1)
A1 Stow, John
A1 fitz Stephen, William
A6 Jenstad, Janelle
T1 Survey of London: Gates
T2 The Map of Early Modern London
WP 2018
FD 2018/06/20
RD 2018/06/20
PP Victoria
PB University of Victoria
LA English
OL English

TEI citation

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